Software development involves many constraints at different stages. Managers need to analyse and implement each constraint efficiently according to their difficulty levels for effective decision making and successful project outcomes. The proper application of these constraints eventually constitute an efficient and working software taking into consideration, proper prioritisation of the crucial elements – the budget, 范围和时间.
现在, 你如何有效地安排预算的优先次序, scope and the schedule in order to successfully accomplish a project? 为此，我们需要了解 software development triangle also known as the Iron Triangle 了解每个因素的相互依存关系.
任何项目, 无论大小, has three mutually dependent factors which rely on each other for implementing successful software:
时间: 把时间看作金钱. The more time is utilised to deliver a project, the more money it costs. 而不是, you can manipulate your needs by broadening the project scope with increased time constraint or if you want to speed up the process, you can increase the cost or reduce the number of features.
范围: It is very important to decide the scope of the project in advance before the commencement of the project because crucial decisions depend on this factor and if not properly set, 会给项目带来灾难性的后果吗. 此外, 如果你想扩大项目的范围, naturally there will be an increase of time as well as budget.
预算: As project owners, you need to know how much you are willing to spend on a software. So, 如果您需要具有高级功能的交付模型, logically you should be ready to shell out more money and invest more time. 但如果你想降低成本, obviously the 范围和时间 constraints need to be reduced as well.
考虑到以上因素, it is now time to define and clearly set the estimates for the project and finalise the best method to develop the software within a limited budget, 时间和范围. 因此, to analyse the requirements for converting the customer demands into technicalities, we need some crucial answers for making important decisions. 以下问题的答案:
- How much time is needed to implement the required features?
- How much manpower will be utilised considering their expertise and specialities?
- What will be the cost estimates, considering the 范围和时间?
If the above answers are prioritised and solved before the commencement of the project, the right technical team can be assembled to develop software at the highest standard and this becomes the true foundation of your project success.
Risks and challenges are bound to happen even if you take the most appropriate preventive measures to ensure a hassle-free 软件开发过程. So how does a project manager overcome these challenges without compromising on quality?
- Delegation works best as it aims for performing tasks according to one’s capabilities thus ensuring efficient usage of time and other resources. The project manager is responsible for bringing in key resources and building an efficient team to split tasks among team members for optimised time and budget utilisation.
- The project should be developed based on its defined objective and scope. Managers need to keep a track on the accomplishing those objectives and work out accordingly to achieve them and avoid unnecessary costs and reduce time.
- Regular updates on the tasks accomplished and keep informing the stakeholders of the progress so far.
- 最后但并非最不重要的, project managers need to monitor risks and assess them carefully in order to avoid encountering them in future and to take necessary actions against them.
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